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百瑞·威尔逊
中国国际城市化发展战略研究委员会委员、英国注册景观建筑师
香港园境师协会董事、香港注册园境师
英国景观建筑师学会和香港园境师学会成员

  百瑞先生是香港城市设计学会副会长,由他创立的百瑞隽思项目咨询有限公司在解决中国大陆和香港的城市化问题方面已有20余年的实践经验。www.initiatives.com.hk
 Barry Wilson is Vice President of the Hong Kong Institute of Urban Design. His practice, Barry Wilson Project Initiatives, have been tackling urbanisation issues in Hong Kong and China for over 20 years. www.initiativ es.com.hk
作者寄语
  城市从未像现在这样复杂,多方面的问题会影响到城市建设中的理念、规划、开发、管理和老化。在时间维度下,人口聚集过程承载着社会、政治、健康、文化和经济背景。故此涉及到的社会领域包罗万象,包括社会历史学、城市社会学、建筑史和考古学,还有医疗健康与教育、城市地理学与经济学理论。

  在这个专栏中,我将游走在世界各地,与各领域的专家、远见者、变革者一道讨论让城市生活更美好的基本要素。并在不同关键维度上,分享他们对未来城市生活的独特见解。

(百瑞·威尔逊于2018年8月深圳)

  我上一次造访吉隆坡还是2003年。在那之后的15年间,世界发生了翻天覆地的变化,这座城市也是如此,以至于我回到此地时几乎认不出来了。为了弄清楚发生了什么,我拜访了当地知名的企业家, Arch Collection Sdn Bhd1 的首席执行官兼创始人李运旗(Andrew Lee)。他对这座城市的热爱一直以来都是(推动这座城市)文化复兴的核心力量。2012年,李运旗建立了吉隆坡城市馆2,这座展馆如同一座桥梁,向游客展示着吉隆坡的过去、现在和未来。值得一提的是,我们见面的“展馆”坐落在一座拥有120年历史的建筑中,该建筑位于吉隆坡文化遗产飞地的战略中心位置——独立广场(Dataran Merdeka)。它最初是“政府印刷办公室”,现在由吉隆坡遗产保护委员会负责管理保护。此地有很多源自城市建立之初的建筑物、建筑结构和图案,是文化遗产探访之旅的必经之地。
  绿色与城市发展 
  我对在这座城市亲眼目睹的变化感到十分好奇,而李运旗却说过去的五年才是这座城市快速改变的时期。他回忆道,他有许多好友在这段时间都离开了,回来时也发现这座城市已然大不相同了。1950年,吉隆坡的人口为261,528,而今这个数字是140万。但市中心的人口实际并没有像上个世纪的各种战略计划中预测的那样快速增长。伴随着人口老龄化以及人口增长率自20世纪80年代达到最高点后的不断下降,人口从“城市”向外迁移的趋势愈加明显。造成这种情况的原因并非是就业机会的缺乏,而是城市中心长期缺乏经济适用房。大多数年轻人都搬到了偏远的小城镇居住,尽管他们每天依然要回到城市工作。因此,“大吉隆坡”(巴生谷)的市区在过去的15年里应运而生并迅速发展,产生了高速增长的郊区人口。这意味着如今的大吉隆坡是一个拥有超过750万人口的城市。加上刺激经济发展的城市聚集政策,这个数字在2030年将飙升到1000万4。
  李运旗告诉我,新开发的郊区密度高、经济实惠,并且由地铁线路相连接,郊区与市中心的通勤时间仅为45分钟到一个小时之间。但他也注意到年轻专业人士回归市中心居住的新趋势。他本人出生在吉隆坡,这里距离唐人街只有一步之遥。小时候他就对观察这个地区的建筑十分感兴趣,每每想起,他都以自己的城市为傲。“我收集了吉隆坡的邮票、硬币、书籍、明信片和旧照片。也喜欢去欣赏那里的古建筑,得空就四处闲逛,探究建筑背后的历史和故事”在结束学校的建筑课程后,最初他任职于一家模型制作公司,并在1989年开始了他自己的建筑模型事业,制作传统建筑和地标性建筑艺术品。今天,它已经发展成为一家生产独特手信、纪念品和收藏品的巨大全球性出口企业。秉承着“同一个城市,同一种传承”的理念,他的企业可以为世界上任何一座城市设计独特的艺术作品。
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吉隆坡城市馆
Kuala Lumpur City Gallery
  1972年,伊丽莎白女王首次访问吉隆坡,那个时期的事李运旗记忆犹新: “我们住在唐人街附近的公寓里,那时我父亲是一家大酒店的厨师,我们经常步行外出,整个社区被阴影和树木覆盖,绿意盎然。这也是一个邻里关系亲密的社区。如今大多数树木都已不复存在,城市里出现了很多条宽阔道路使得步行外出非常不便。逛街这件事变得愈发困难,因为失去了绿荫,整座城市都“热浪滚滚”。但他也指出,这样的情况正在改变。地铁、轻轨和单轨项目的完工,鼓励了更多的人重新选择步行。 “树木和主要建筑物的行人通道不断增加,有遮盖的人行道和带空调的天桥数量也在增长。”
 
  李运旗谈到为了在城市开发的过程中很多的树木都被移除了,这种情况直到约10年前才有所改观,彼时人们,特别是开发商开始意识到城市树木的重要性。20世纪50年代种植了很多来自印度和南美洲英国殖民地有适应能力的物种。这些参天大树虽然很醒目却很不容易维护,并且其根系具有破坏性。而现在种植的树木是本地物种,更适应本地的生态环境。李运旗补充道:“现在的城市开发需要达到大约30%的绿化覆盖的要求,因此商场通常与公园相连,并有绿色屋顶。新吉隆坡106交易塔就是个很好的例子,同时,绿色植物还使整座商场更具吸引力。目前市内还有11个公园。”
  李运旗建议在下一步的改进中有必要增加更多的人行道照明设置及步行设施。他告诉我,他的家人在这座城市里都以步行的方式出行,但是我对这里的气候依然比较担忧。这里气候炎热,雨水不断,是否真的适合步行呢? 他向我解释道,吉隆坡人喜欢在晚上外出。凉风习习的夜晚非常适合夜间活动。他告诉我,来自郊区的人们也喜欢在夜晚开车到市中心享受夜生活,例如在唐人街散步。谈话很自然地引向了我最喜欢的话题,随后我们谈论了城市的汽车问题。我们怎样才能克服拥有汽车的愿望呢? “首先,良好的公共交通系统是必不可少的。目前政府正在增加地铁线路,使城市更适合步行。其次,我们可以通过增加停车费用和减少停车可能性来限制停车。在城市之外人们需要私家车,但可通过换乘市内公共交通工具的方式来解决通勤问题。”
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富都老城区需要的是细致的城市更新,而不是重建。
Pudu old district needs careful urban renewal, not redevelopment.
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吉隆坡地标性建筑-吉隆坡石油双塔
KL's iconic Petronas Towers
  同一个城市,同一种传承 
  对我而言,最近所有城市在发展中最明显的特点就是建筑风格失去了地方特色,大量千篇一律“国际”风格的玻璃外墙办公大楼拔地而起。我想知道李运旗是否认为这个城市正在失去它的特色?“这确实是目前我们遇到的一大问题。”他提到:“快速发展使得大家更青睐标准化建筑流程和更便宜的施工方法。”他认为能代表吉隆坡乃至整个马来西亚文化的标志性建筑——双子塔(Petronas(twin)Towers)就具有很强的当地特色。它的设计灵感源自伊斯兰教建筑,例如重复的几何形状和蔓藤花纹。其中两个互锁的正方形构成的八角星图案展示了“统一、和谐、稳定”的伊斯兰教义内涵。相比之下,目前大部分已经建成或即将完工的高层建筑都毫无特色和内涵可言。这是一个全球性的问题,世界上的城市正在日益趋同。
  我曾经漫步于一个叫做富都(Pudu)的市中心区域,它是一个古老而迷人的低层小区。这里到处都是“店屋”、餐馆和具有当地特色的建筑,也可以找到吉隆坡最古老的巴士站(Pudu Sentral)和最大的市场。这个区域看起来非常适合李运旗提到的那些回到城市想要寻找低成本但真实的生活方式的“年轻专业人士”居住,并且这个区域有望使城市再生。事实上富都监狱旧址目前正在进行全面重建,建设内容包括零售商场、娱乐中心、办公室、酒店和服务式公寓等。但不难想象的是,新建筑都采用了国际通用、平淡无奇且随处可见的玻璃墙面风格。该监狱原本由英国人在1891年至1895年间分阶段建造而成,如今却在没有研究其作为国家历史一部分的社会历史价值,在没有识别其对后代的保护价值的情况下拆除它,这是不合理的。重新开发本可以与遗产保护并存,可以采用保持建筑结构仅改变其功能的方式,同时可以通过增加额外的建筑物来解决提供额外地面空间的问题。最近经过修复和重建的香港维多利亚监狱就是一个很好的例子,通过精心修复并增加优质现代建筑设施后,这里作为“大观遗产和艺术中心”重新开放。文化遗产旅游观光行业的经济潜力不容小觑。我担心富都的“焕发新生”最终会以“重新开发”告终,那么这个独特而古老地区和它承载的文化遗产价值将在争夺廉价土地的过程中丧失殆尽。李运旗解释说,目前已经确定将对该地区的一些低质量建筑进行重建,楼层高度最多可达7或8层,但是开发的容积率非常低,而且由于市中心交通流量控制,新开发项目中没有停车位。
  尽管吉隆坡的一些旧城区过去多姿多彩,但至今未有一处被列入或宣布为文物保护区。不过这些城区的一些建筑物已被马来西亚旅游和文化部下属的国家遗产部门列为“文物建筑”和“国家遗产”。吉隆坡城市馆就是这样一座建筑。然而对历史建筑重新利用并非易事。不仅在修复和维持古建筑上需要花费大量资金,在使古建筑符合现代建筑和安全法规上也要颇费心思。维护和改造旧建筑的过程是一个与过去的文化连接的过程,然而作为活化石的古建筑常常会使用现代已经无法复制材料和工艺。可以这么说,保护历史建筑是一条单行道。历史遗迹一旦消失,我们就再也没有机会对它们进行翻新或保存了。同时我们也永远无法确定它们将来会有什么样的价值。这就是为何寻找和拯救具有历史意义的建筑如此重要。因为历史一旦被摧毁就会永远消失。
  李运旗很希望看到游客和当地居民都能欣赏建筑和城市中蕴含的美和文化底蕴。他通过吉隆坡城市馆清晰地表达了对家乡建筑的热爱。与此同时我们也能感受到向他人介绍这座城市的过去、现在和未来给他带来的巨大喜悦。他希望游客能够受到启发,并对整个国家的建筑和文化遗产问题有更多的了解和认识。虽然城市馆的所有权仍然归市政厅所有,但是维护的责任却落在了李运旗的肩上。这是一个不容小看的负担,但这种公共所有与私人管理的合作模式,有助于为旧遗产注入新的活力,并作为催化剂重新将生命力带回城市中心。
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开发商将城市中现有大树纳入新开发项目
Developers incorporating existing large trees in the new projects
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附带绿荫遮盖和冷气,并充满活力的步行通道
Covered, air-conditioned, vibrant walking connections


  回到未来 
 一如既往,我试图弄明白变革将把我们带向何处。李运旗希望未来吉隆坡的公共交通系统可以得到加强,私家车数量会下降,市民们都把火车和步行作为普通的日常出行方式。“街道宽阔、树木高大,如盖的绿荫与周围的建筑连成一片。在李运旗的理想未来里,人们拥有更简单、更优质、更健康的生活方式,可以理解和欣赏文化的多样性,返璞归真。事实上,回到过去即到达未来。
  参考文献
  1、ARCH是一家经营木制建筑模型的企业
  2、又称吉隆坡城市长廊,位于吉隆坡独立广场旁。由马来西亚华人设计师李运旗先生创办。
  3、4、https://population.un.org/wup/
  6、https://www.edgeprop.my/content/1276523/what-about-investing-heritage-buildings

BACK TO THE FUTURE—BARRY INTERVIEWS ANDREW LEE

  It was way back in 2003 that I last visited Kuala Lumpur. In the 15 years since, the world has changed remarkably, and so has the city, being barely recognisable to me upon my return. To get a grasp of what’s been happening I met up with well-known local entrepreneur, Andrew Lee, CEO & founder of Arch Collection Sdn Bhd whose passion for his city has been at the heart of a heritage renaissance. In 2012, Andrew established the Kuala Lumpur City Gallery, the essential starting point in providing tourists with information about the past, present and future of KL. Importantly the ‘Gallery’, where we meet, is based in the 120-year-old building that originally functioned as the “Government Printing Office” and is strategically located right at the centre of Kuala Lumpur’s heritage enclave - Dataran Merdeka (Merdeka Square). Protected under the Conservation & Heritage Protection Board, the area is the must-visit heritage destination, comprising many buildings, structures and icons originating from the establishment of the city. 

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  GREEN OR GROWTH
 
 I’m curious about the changes I have witnessed in the city, which Andrew suggests have really accelerated in the last 5 years. He recalls that many of his friends that have been away during this time, also find the city completely different when returning. In 1950, the population of Kuala Lumpur was 261,528. Today it is approximately 1.4 million, but the core has not actually grown nearly as fast as predicted under various strategic plans of the last century. With an aging population and growth rates continually declining since a high in the 1980’s, significant outward migration from the ‘City’ has been a clear trend. It has not resulted from any lack of employment opportunities, rather being primarily due to a chronic shortage of affordable housing at the centre. A strong movement towards young people moving to small, outlying towns became keenly prevalent, who nonetheless, commute daily back into the City to work. Thus, a metropolitan area of ‘Greater KL’ (Klang Valley) has been born and developed rapidly in the last 15 years, generating a booming suburban population that today means Greater KL boasts a city of over 7.5 million people, combined with an urban agglomeration policy intended to further spur the country's economic growth to reach almost 10 million by 20303.

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1909的年吉隆坡政府印刷办公室
The Government Printing Office Kuala Lumpur in 1909
  Andrew describes to me how the newly developed suburbs are high density, affordable, connected by metro lines, and within 45 minutes to an hour commuting time. But he also notes a new trend of young professionals coming back to live in the city centre. He himself was born in KL, just a stone’s throw from the area still known as Chinatown. He takes real pride in his city, recalling being always interested in observing the architecture of buildings in the area from the time he was small. “I collected stamps, coins, books, postcards and old photographs of Kuala Lumpur. I enjoyed looking at the old buildings there and often roamed around asking lots of questions about the history of buildings and the background.” Initially working for a model-making company after he had quit his school programme in Architecture, he then started his own business in architectural scale models in 1989, making samples of art pieces of heritage buildings and iconic landmarks that has today morphed into a huge, global, export business creating unique, veneer-based gifts, souvenirs and collectibles. His concept of ‘One City, One Heritage’develops art pieces and designs that celebrate the unique and distinctive quality of any world city. 
  In 1972 Queen Elizabeth visited KL for the first time and Andrew remembers the period well. “We lived in flats nearby Chinatown, my father was a chef at a big hotel and in those days we walked everywhere; it was very green, shaded and tree covered and we had a close knit community. Nowadays most of the trees have been lost and there are too many large roads to make walking convenient. It’s difficult to move around the streets and the city feels ‘hot’.” But he notes that changes are afoot. The completion of the Metro, LRT and Monorail projects are encouraging more people to walk again. “The city has been adding both trees and a network of pedestrian connections to major buildings. There are covered walkways and airconditioned skybridges.” Andrew relates how city trees were frequently removed for development until about 10 years ago, when there was more of a realisation of the importance of trees in the city, particularly from developers. Many of the large trees were planted during the 1950’s, using adaptable species from the British colonies in India and South America. These huge trees are impressive, but are not easy to maintain and the roots are disruptive. Today’s plantings are local, native species, better adapted to both the environment and ecology. Andrew enthuses that “There are now requirements for green coverage in development, something like 30%, so the malls are connected with parks and have green roofs, like the new KL106 building. The greenery is making the malls more attractive to visit. There are also now 11 parks within the city”
  Anticipating further improvements coming, Andrew suggests more footpath lighting and walking surface provision is necessary. Now his family all walk the city he tells me, but I am concerned about the climate. It’s really hot, it’s raining a lot, surely not good for walking? He assures me that KL people like to walk in the evenings. The climate is perfect for night time activity, when there is a cool breeze. He notes how people from the suburbs will drive into the centre to enjoy the evenings and walk around places like Chinatown. That leads us to my favourite subject and we talk about the problems of cars in the city. How can we get over the desirability of car ownership? “Firstly, you must have good public transport in place. The government is adding metro lines and making the city more walkable. Then you need to restrict parking, both through increased parking cost and reducing availability. Outside the city people need cars, but park and ride options using public transport can be used to address this for commuting.” 
  ONE CITY ONE HERITAGE
  To me, one of the most apparent aspects of all the recent development has been the loss of local character in the building style and the development of bland, reflective-glass office blocks in generic ‘international’ style proliferates. I wonder if Andrew thinks the city is losing its unique character? “It’s a problem,” he feels. “Fast-track development has led to standardised processes and cheaper construction methods.” He feels that the Petronas (twin) Towers, the iconic landmarks of both KL and even Malaysia itself, have that key quality of relating to the local culture and generating a strong identity. The design was inspired by characteristics of Islamic architecture such as repetitive geometries and arabesques, with the simple geometric plan of two interlocking squares that create an 8-pointed star and represent the Islamic principles of ‘unity within unity, harmony, stability and rationality’. By contrast, much of the current crop of high-rise building, both recently and soon to be completed, really could be built to look the same anywhere in the world. It’s a problem globally, cities are becoming identical.
  I had walked around an inner-city area called Pudu, an old and most charming, low-rise district somewhat in decay, full of shophouses, eateries and local character including Kuala Lumpur's oldest bus station (Pudu Sentral) and one of the largest wet markets in Kuala Lumpur. The district looks perfect for those “young professionals” Andrew mentioned, returning to the city looking for cheaper but authentic lifestyles, and it does appear ripe for urban regeneration. Indeed, the old Pudu Jail site is currently being wholly redeveloped with a mixed development including a retail mall, entertainment hub, offices, hotel and serviced apartments. But you guessed it; the intended new buildings are all in that bland, international, ‘anyplace’, glass tower style5.  The Jail was built by the British in stages between 1891 and 1895 but demolished without perhaps studying its historic value to society as part of the nation’s history and identifying the value of preservation for coming generations. Redevelopment could have been implemented through adaptive reuse, where the structure could have been maintained and only its function changed whilst additional floor space could have been provided through additional building. A great example is the recently restored and developed Hong Kong Victoria Prison, stunningly restored and augmented with premium quality modern architectural additions in reopening as ‘The Tai Kwun Center for Heritage and Arts.’ The economic potential that could be realised through heritage appreciation and tourism cannot be understated. I worry that positive ‘regeneration’ in Pudu may end up being complete ‘redevelopment’ and that the special character and unique heritage of this old district will be quickly lost in the grab for cheap land. Andrew explains that some of the lower quality buildings in the area have been identified for redevelopment, up to 7 or 8 stories, but with very low plot ratios for development and that no parking can be incorporated into new development as this would generate increased traffic flows.
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吉隆坡石油双塔附近的街心公园
Urban Park at Petronas Towers
 None of the old areas of Kuala Lumpur have been gazetted or declared a heritage zone despite their colourful pasts, but several buildings have been gazetted as “heritage building” and “national heritage” by the National Heritage Department under the Ministry of Tourism and Culture Malaysia6.   City Gallery is one such building, but committing to utilise historic buildings is no simple matter. They need large inputs of capital to maintain their condition as well as to adapt them to modern day building and safety codes. Maintaining and adapting older buildings maintains an important cultural link with the past however, they are living history, often utilising materials and craftsmanship that can no longer be found in modern day. The preservation of historic buildings is a one-way street. There is no chance to renovate or to save a historic site once it’s gone, and we can never be certain what will be valued in the future. This reality brings to light the importance of locating and saving buildings of historic significance, because once a piece of history is destroyed, it is lost forever. 
  Andrew appreciates that both tourists and long-standing residents are able to appreciate the aesthetic and cultural history of a building or area. City Gallery is a clear declaration of his love for the city fabric he was born into and yet also represents his joy at being able to inform others about both the past, present and future. He wants the tourist to be inspired and have a greater appreciation and awareness of the country’s heritage issues, both architectural and cultural. The building remains owned by City Hall, however under the lease conditions, responsibility for the upkeep falls to Andrew. A burden not to be taken lightly, this public / private partnership model is however helping to breathe new life to old heritage, and acting as a catalyst for greater change in bringing vitality back to urban centres. 
  BACK TO THE FUTURE
  As always, I want to understand where change is taking us. Andrew’s vision of tomorrow’s KL is one containing far fewer private vehicles, where public transport is enhanced and everyone takes the train and walks as normal part of life. “The streets are wide, deeply shaded with trees, full of greenery and seamlessly connected to the spaces and buildings around them. His future consists of a more simple, quality, healthy existence, where people understand and appreciate diversity in culture and can all go back to their roots”. The past is the future indeed.

指导机构:中华人民共和国住房和城乡建设部科学技术委员会    中华人民共和国自然资源部科技专家咨询委员会
主办机构:中国国际城市化发展战略研究委员会
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